Exception Rule

Basic Definition | Description| | Example

Basic Definition

Property Name
This property defines a rule or repeating pattern for an exception to a recurrence set.
Value Type
Property Parameters
Non-standard property parameters can be specified on this property.
This property can be specified in "VEVENT", "VTODO" or "VJOURNAL" calendar components.


The exception rule, if specified, is used in computing the recurrence set. The recurrence set is the complete set of recurrence instances for a calendar component. The recurrence set is generated by considering the initial "DTSTART" property along with the "RRULE", "RDATE", "EXDATE" and "EXRULE" properties contained within the iCalendar object. The "DTSTART" defines the first instance in the recurrence set. Multiple instances of the "RRULE" and "EXRULE" properties can also be specified to define more sophisticated recurrence sets. The final recurrence set is generated by gathering all of the start date-times generated by any of the specified "RRULE" and "RDATE" properties, and excluding any start date and times which fall within the union of start date and times generated by any specified "EXRULE" and "EXDATE" properties. This implies that start date and times within exclusion related properties (i.e., "EXDATE" and "EXRULE") take precedence over those specified by inclusion

properties (i.e., "RDATE" and "RRULE"). Where duplicate instances are generated by the "RRULE" and "RDATE" properties, only one recurrence is considered. Duplicate instances are ignored.

The "EXRULE" property can be used to exclude the value specified in "DTSTART". However, in such cases the original "DTSTART" date MUST still be maintained by the calendaring and scheduling system because the original "DTSTART" value has inherent usage dependencies by other properties such as the "RECURRENCE-ID".

Format Definition

The property is defined by the following notation:

  exrule     = "EXRULE" exrparam ":" recur CRLF

  exrparam   = *(";" xparam)


The following are examples of this property. Except every
other week, on Tuesday and Thursday for 4 occurrences:


Except daily for 10 occurrences:


Except yearly in June and July for 8 occurrences: